Glossary
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Glossary

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Term Definition
Herringbone Streaks
Elongated alternate bright and dull markings at an angle to the rolling direction and having the appearance of a herringbone pattern.
Homogenizing
A high temperature soaking treatment to eliminate or reduce segregation by diffusion.
Hot Working
Plastic deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain hardening does not occur.
Impact
A part formed in a press from a metal slug in a die, usually cold, by rapid application of force through a punch, causing the metal to flow around the punch and/or through an opening in the die.
Inclusion
Foreign material in the metal or impressed into the surface.
Intergranular Corrosion
Corrosion occurring preferentially at grain boundaries.
Interleaving
The insertion of paper between layers of metal to protect from damage or to facilitate shearing and prevent sticking of sheets of foil.
Kink
An abrupt bend or departure from flatness.
L├╝ders Lines
Surface markings resulting from localized flow which appear on some alloys after light straining. They lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress (about 45 degrees to the direction of the applied stress), and appear as depressions when forming is in tension and as elevations when in compression.
Lateral Bow
Deviation of a longitudinal edge from straight (sometimes called camber).
Longitudinal Bow
A longitudinal curvature in the plane of a sheet.
Mean Diameter
The average of two measurements of the diameter taken at right angles to each other.
Mean Wall Thickness
The average of two measurements of the wall thickness of a tubular product, taken opposite each other.
Mechanical Properties
Those properties of a material that are associated with elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between stress and strain; for example, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, endurance limit. These properties are often referred to as "physical" properties.
MIL
A prefix for the US military's material specifications
Modulus of Elasticity
The ratio of stress to corresponding strain throughout the range where they are proportional.
Modulus of Rigidity
The ratio of the unit shear stress in a torsion test, to the displacement caused by it per unit length in the elastic range. This modulus corresponds to the modulus of elasticity in the tension test.
Nick
A surface or edge discontinuity in the form of a slight cut, indentation, or notch.
Nickel

Non Heat-Treatable Alloy
An alloy which can be strengthened only by cold work.
Off Gauge
Deviation of thickness or diameter of a solid product, or wall thickness of a tubular product, from the standardpr specified dimensional tolerances.
Oil Can
A buckle that can be snapped from one position to another. Also referred to as snap buckle.
Oil Stain
Discoloration produced during thermal treatment due to incomplete oxidation of lubricants on the surface. The color may vary from dark brown to white.
Orange Peel
Surface roughening on formed products resulting from the use of coarse grained material.
Ovalness
Deviation from a circular periphery, usually expressed as the total difference found at any one cross section between the individual maximum and minimum diameters which usually occur at or about 90 degrees to each other. Ovalness is not expressed as plus or minus.
Oxide Discoloration
Discoloration of the metal surface due to oxidation during thermal treatment.
Pack Marks
Small densely distributed abrasions on the surface of sheet or foil resulting from rolling in packs of two or more.
Partial Annealing
Thermal treatment given cold worked metal to reduce the strength to a controlled level.
Passivation
Passivation is the process of making a material "passive" in relation to another material prior to using the materials together.
Patterned or Embossed Sheet
Sheet on which a pattern has been impressed on one or both sides.
Physical Properties
The properties, other than mechanical properties, that pertain to the physics of a material; for example, density, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion.
Pickup
Small particles of oxide adhering to the surface of a product.
Pinch Marks
Pressed-in folds generally running parallel to the direction of rolling.
Pipe
Tube in standardized combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness commonly designated by "Nominal Pipe Sizes" and "ANS Schedule Numbers".
Pipe, Seamless
Pipe produced from hollow extrusion ingot.
Pipe, Structural
Extruded pipe, which may contain an extrusion seam, suitable for application not involving internal pressure.
Pit
A sharp depression in the surface.
Plate

Polishing
A mechanical finishing operation for the purpose of producing a gloss or luster on the surface of a product.
Preheating
A high temperature soaking treatment to provide a desired metallurgical structure. Homogenizing is a form of preheating.
Quenching
Controlled rapid cooling of a metal from an elevated temperature by contact with a liquid, a gas, or a solid.
Rib
An elongated projection on a shape or forging to provide stiffening.
Ring Condition
A subsurface condition in an extrusion which, when present, generally parallels the section contour. It is the result of liquated surface metal from the ingot becoming incorporated into the metal flowing through the die and may be revealed by caustic etching of a cross section.
Rod
A solid product that is long in relation to cross section, which is 3/8" or greater in diameter.
Rod, Alclad
Rod having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion.
Rod, Cold-Finished
Rod brought to final dimensions by cold working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.
Rod, Cold-Finished Extruded
Rod produced by cold working extruded rod.
Rod, Cold-Finished Rolled
Rod produced by cold working rolled rod.
Rod, Cold-Heading
Rod of a quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold. headed products such as rivets and bolts.
Rod, Extruded
Rod produced by hot extruding.
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